Municipal Lagoon systems are often challenged with facilitating nitrification. Nitrifying bacteria are responsible for removing ammonia from wastewater. These organisms are generally in low abundance in lagoon processes for a few reasons;  nitrification is an energetically taxing process and  nitrification is easily disrupted by inconsistencies in physical wastewater conditions. For example, moderate alkalinity and temperature changes can impair ammonia oxidation. There is limited control over the physical conditions in lagoon systems. Because of these margins, nitrification is often the rate-limiting reaction in the treatment process.